ptolemy ii philadelphos

Inscription: ΑΔΕΛΦΩΝ. He is also mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka as a recipient of the Buddhist proselytism of Ashoka, although no Western historical record of this event remain. Partner of Bilistiche at the age of 25. Berenike II. He was the son of Ptolemy I Soter, the Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great who founded the Ptolemaic Kingdom after the death of Alexander, and queen Berenice I, originally from Macedon in northern Greece. Building activity was concentrated on Alexandria; the lighthouse, one of … Ptolemy is recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra in India, probably to Emperor Ashoka: "But [India] has been treated of by several other Greek writers who resided at the courts of Indian kings, such, for instance, as Megasthenes, and by Dionysius, who was sent thither by Philadelphus, expressly for the purpose: all of whom have enlarged upon the power and vast resources of these nations." Most importantly, he commissioned an Egyptian priest, Manetho, to consult the records in the temples of Egypt and compile a history of Egypt. During the Ptolemaic Period there were a number of edicts published in which the text was repeated in Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic, and Greek. The Ptolemaic sphere of power extended over the Cyclades to Samothrace, and the harbours and coast towns of Cilicia Trachea, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. Brother of Philotera, I and Arsinoe, II The king apparently sent lavish gifts to Jerusalem and granted freedom to numerous Jewish slaves and in return six members of each of the twelve tribes of Israel travelled to Alexandria to translate the Torah. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος , Ptolemaios Philadelphos Ptolemy, friend of his siblings; 308/9 – 28 January 246 BCE) was the pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE. Ptolemy III Euergetes I . Magas of Cyrene attacked Egypt from the west but was forced to withdraw by internal revolt. Ptolemy II had a joint reign with his sister and wife Arsinoe II, dominated on the military front by several wars in Syria. [6] Ptolemy had many brilliant mistresses, and his court, magnificent and dissolute, intellectual and artificial, has been compared with the Versailles of Louis XIV. He had exotic animals of far off lands sent to Alexandria, and staged a procession in Alexandria in honor of Dionysus led by 24 chariots drawn by elephants and a procession of lions, leopards, panthers, camels, antelopes, wild asses, ostriches, a bear, a giraffe and a rhinoceros. He introduced a new salt tax which was imposed on every woman and man with only a few exceptions. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (308-246): second ruler of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 282 to 246 BCE. He created three distinct courts: the Chrematistai was the royal court and heard cases on an ad hoc basis; the Dikasteria heard cases involving Greek speaking parties; and Laokritai heard cases involving parties who spoke Egyptian and was overseen by Egyptian priests. He took the Egyptian name, Meryamun Setepenre, which means "Beloved of Amun, Chosen of Re". Unfortunately we do not have a full copy of Manetho’s work, only a list of the kings divided into a series of dynasties and excerpts which appear in the works of Josephus, Africanus, and Eusebius, but its importance cannot be overstated. ΓA monogram over ZA monogram in left field, ΛA over ΦA monogram in right field. Title: Face attributed to Ptolemy II Philadelphos or a contemporary Period: Ptolemaic Period Dynasty: Ptolemaic Dynasty Reign: reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphos Date: 285–246 B.C. Egypt's victories solidified the kingdom's position as the undisputed naval power of the eastern Mediterranean; his fleet (112 ships) bore the most powerful naval siege units of the time, guaranteed the king access to the coastal cities of his empire. He had two elder brothers, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, both of whom were Macedonian kings. During Ptolemy's reign, the material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height. While he was away on a campaign, she conspired against him from the capital, Cassandreia (Greek: Κασσάνδρεια), with the aid of her sons. Alan K. Bowman (1989) Egypt After the Pharaohs: 332 BC-AD 642 : from Alexander to the Arab Conquest, J. G. Manning (2010) The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC, Paul McKechnie, Philippe Guillaume (2008) Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. He had two half-brothers, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, both of whom became kings of Macedonia (in 281 BCE and 279 BCE respectively). Diademed and veiled head of the deified Arsinoe II facing right; in left field Λ. Subcategories are rulers in chronological order, including Ptolemy I Soter, Berenike I, Ptolemy Keraunos, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, Arsinoe II, Ptolemy III Euergetes I, Berenike II, Ptolemy IV Philopator I, Arsinoe III, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, Cleopatra I Syria, Ptolemy … He is known by the epithet Philadelphus (“si… After Lysimachus' defeat and death in the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC, against Seleucus I Nicator, Ptolemy Keraunos murdered Seleucus I in order to gain the power of his former protector. Which cookies and scripts are used and how they impact your visit is specified on the left. Diademed and veiled head right; A behind Rev. Alexandria, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt, Arsinoe I, Queen of Greece, Queen of Egypt, Berenice ., Phernophorus, Princess of Egypt, Birth of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Pharaoh of Egypt, Birth of Berenice ., Phernophorus, Princess of Egypt, Birth of Ptolemy III Euergetes, Pharaoh of Egypt. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. He then rushed to Lysimacheia where he had himself acclaimed king by the Macedonian army. He began his reign as co-regent with his father Ptolemy I from ca. With a woman named Bilistiche he had an (illegitimate) son named Ptolemy Andromachou. On his father's death, he became sole ruler. Callimachus, keeper of the library, Theocritus, and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Two or three years of war followed. The king's near hand is raised in adoration as he approaches a small table supporting a floral offering. 1980) gives the date of his death as January 29. His death brought anarchy to the Greek states, since none of his successors were able to bring stability. Egypt was involved in several wars during his reign. Callimachus, keeper of the library, Theocritus,[5] and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. They assembled to translate the Hebrew Old Testament into the Greek language because Koine Greek began to supplant Hebrew as the language most commonly spoken by the Jewish people during the Hellenistic Period. He is also mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka as a recipient of the Buddhist proselytism of Ashoka. 290 BCE–ca. To celebrate his accession he staged an elaborate pageant, which included music, images of Egyptian and Greek gods, and a long train of wild beasts and birds unknown to Egypt, including elephants harnessed to chariots. Ptolemy eventually managed to send naval aid to his allies but his admiral Patroclus was heavily defeated by Antigonus II Gonatas (the King of Macedon) in the Battle of Cos and Athens fell under Macedonian control. Browse the Ptolemy II page with thumbnail images. Cookies that are necessary to enable my site to function. This site uses functional cookies and external scripts to improve your experience. Elias Joseph Bickermann (Chronology of the Ancient World, 2nd ed. Pomp and splendor flourished. Arsinoe was not happy with the situation. Ptolemy II was the first pharaoh to marry his full sister, but this form of marriage became standard for the remainder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Biography Early life and reign. The outer face of this block shows the king behind an unnamed goddess, most probably Maat, holding an ankh (life sign). 283 BCE, and maintained a splendid court in Alexandria. Ptolemy was keen to support scientific research and was a generous sponsor of the arts. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice, and was educated by Philitas of Cos. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος Ptolemaîos Philádelphos 309–246 BC) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BC to 246 BC. Ptolemaic Kingdom. Numismatic Museum Athens, Greece. Magas of Cyrene opened war on his half-brother (274 BC), and the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter, desiring Coele-Syria with Judea, attacked soon after in the First Syrian War. Coins were struck with date Year 1, beginning in 283 B.C. According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Gauls plotted “to seize Egypt,” and so Ptolemy marooned them on a deserted island in the Nile River where “they perished at one another’s hands or by famine.”. [5] Although an enthusiast for Hellenic culture, he also adopted Egyptian religious concepts, which helped to bolster his image as a sovereign. Son of Ptolemy I Soter, Pharaoh of Egypt and Berenice I, Queen of Egypt Ptolemy reformed the judiciary and promoted royal law above Egyptian and Greek law. According to scholars, most of the animals were in pairs - as many as eight pairs of ostriches - and although the ordinary chariots were likely led by a single elephant, others which carried a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) golden statue may have been led by four.[4]. When that alliance soured, Arsinoe II fled to Egypt to the protection of Ptolemy II. Ptolemy deified his parents and his sister-wife after their deaths. While Ptolemy was staying in Lysimachus's court, Arsinoe's intrigues led to the accusation of Lysimachus' first son, Agathocles, of treason and to his execution. In about 285 BC, Ptolemy I Soter probably took as his co-ruler one of his sons by Berenice, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who became the sole ruler of Egypt and the rest of his father's empire upon the elder king's death in about 282 BC. It was discovered in the Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum in 1754 CE and is currently part of the collection of Bronzes in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples. Ptolemy XVI Philadelphos Antonius was of Greek and Roman heritage. Among them are numerous examples of Ptolemy making offerings to the ancient Egyptian gods and adoring his deified sister Arsinoe II, but there is also the famous Stele of Mendes. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, King of Egypt, was born circa 309 BC, died circa 246 BC. Geography: From Egypt, Memphite Region, Heliopolis (Iunu; On), Near the obelisk, BSAE excavations 1912 Medium: Greywacke Dimensions: H. 16.2 cm (6 3/8 in. Following the customs of Egyptian pharaohs, Ptolemy II (reigned 285–246 BCE) and Arsinoe II (reigned 276–270 BCE) married and ruled as both siblings and spouses. at the age of 25. Ptolemy II Philadelphos, 285-246 BC. The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Shortly afterwards (and most likely at the instigation of Arsinoe II) Arsinoe I was accused of treason and exiled. Ptolemy undertook a great deal of building work throughout Egypt. The Letter of Aristeas (also known as the Letter of Philocrates) tells that Demetrios of Phaleron, a librarian in the Great Library, urged Ptolemy II to obtain a Greek translation of Hebrew laws. Title: Face attributed to Ptolemy II Philadelphos or a contemporary Period: Ptolemaic Period Dynasty: Ptolemaic Dynasty Reign: reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphos Date: 285–246 B.C. Ancient Greek coins from the Ptolemaic Kingdom, modern-day Egypt. Although Ptolemy Keraunos was at the zenith of his power, he did not live long afterwards. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, King of Egypt 281-246 BC. AR Dekadrachm (35-36 mm, 28.41 g), Alexandria. Ptolemy Keraunos (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, died 279 BC) was the King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC. Ptolemy II married Arsinoe I (the daughter of Lysimachus, the king of Thrace) as part of an alliance against Seleucus I Nicator (another general of Alexander the Great). Your choices will not impact your visit. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice, and was educated by Philitas of Cos. He had two half-brothers, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, who both became kings of Macedonia (in 281 BC and 279 BC respectively), and who both died in the Gallic invasion of 280-279 BC. Octodrachm Octodrachm After the death of Arsinoë II, she was declared a … This bronze bust is usually attributed to the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy II Philadelphus (r. 283-246 BCE) although alternative identifications of the bust have been made. Ptolemy transferred the responsibility for the collection of the one-sixth tax (hekte) from the temples to tax farmers giving the crown more effective control of both the levying and collection of taxation. The language of the Septuagint is more like Egyptian Greek than it is like Jerusalemite Greek, according to some." Magas of Cyrene opened war on his half-brother (274 BCE), and the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter, desiring Coele-Syria with Judea, attacked soon after in the First Syrian War. ), according to the Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates. The Ptolemaic empire reached its greatest extent in this reign. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaĩos Philádelphos" 309 BCE–246 BCE), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BCE to 246 BCE. A keen administrator, Ptolemy II enriched himself by commercial ventures and heavier taxes, albeit much of his revenue went to support his soldiers, courtiers, poets, priests and foreign allies. Wars in Syria chlamys and Arsinoe II of Lysimachus, to marry him was. Standing left on thunderbolts of Syracuse ( who lavished Great praise on his coins, Keraunos! 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