[40], Egyptians heard rumours of Rome's possible intervention and disliked the idea of their exiled king's return. One of the unique and often misunderstood aspects of the Ptolemaic dynasty is how and why it never became Egyptian. [7][8][note 1] However, Chris Bennett argues that Ptolemy XII's mother was Cleopatra IV and that he was considered illegitimate simply because she had never been co-regent. In 63 BC, when Pompey was reorganising Syria and Anatolia following his victory in the Third Mithridatic War, Ptolemy sought to form a relationship with Pompey by sending him a golden crown. drowned during a fight with Caesar; Cleopatra killed Ptolemy XIV (4730 B.C.E. ) [34], The bribery policy had been unpopular in Egypt for a long time, both because of its obsequiousness and because of the heavy tax burden that it entailed, but the annexation of Cyprus demonstrated its failure and enraged the people of Alexandria. Ptolemy XII Auletes(117 BC-51 BC) was the Ptolemaic King of Egypt from 80 to 58 BC (succeeding Ptolemy XI and precedingCleopatra VI and Berenice IV) and from 55 to 51 BC (succeeding Cleopatra VIand Berenice and preceding Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra). Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Theós Philopátōr "Ptolemy, God Beloved of his Father"; 62 BC/61 BC – prob. The 18-year-old queen found herself embroiled in court intrigue and soon was ousted from Alexandria, the capital of her realm. Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (The Father-loving God, born 62/61 BCE, died 47 BCE) was pharaoh of Egypt from 51 BCE until his death. Was Cleopatra a killer? She wants to rule with Ptolemy X Alexander, but the Alexandrines force her to accept Ptolemy IX Soter, who is fourteen years old, as co-ruler. Although the Romans had not acted on this, the possibility that they might forced the following Ptolemies to adopt a careful and respectful policy towards Rome. Ptolemy XII (Ptolemy Auletes) (tŏl`əmē ôlē`tēz), d. 51 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (80–58 B.C., 55–51 B.C. One hypothesis contends that possibly they (and perhaps Cleopatra VII) were Ptolemy XII's children with a theoretical half Macedonian Greek, half Egyptian woman belonging to a priestly family from Memphis in northern Egypt,[56] but this is only speculation. He is succeeded by Cleopatra VII; Summer 50: Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler; Summer 49: Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by bothGaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great. In 107 BC she forced him to flee Alexandria for Cyprus and replaced him as co-regent with his younger brother Ptolemy X Alexander. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (c. 100? [53] According to Strabo, his practice of playing the flute earned him the ridiculing sobriquet Auletes ('flute player'): Now all of the kings after the third Ptolemy, being corrupted by luxurious living, administered the affairs of government badly, but worst of all were the fourth, seventh, and the last, Auletes, who, apart from his general licentiousness, practised the accompaniment of choruses with the flute, and upon this he prided himself so much that he would not hesitate to celebrate contests in the royal palace, and at these contests would come forward to vie with the opposing contestants. In that year, Ptolemy XII served as the Priest of Alexander and Ptolemaic kings (an office which Ptolemy IX otherwise held himself throughout his reign) and had a festival established in his honour in Cyrene. Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator — ▪ Macedonian king of Egypt Greek“Ptolemy the Father Loving God” born 62/61 died 47 BC, near Alexandria Macedonian king of Egypt and coruler with his famous sister, Cleopatra VII (Cleopatra). She was at that time the oldest child of Auletes, since two older sisters had died. He also asked Pompey to come to Alexandria and help to put down a revolt which had apparently broken out in Egypt; Pompey refused. Upon regaining power, Ptolemy acted against Berenice, and along with her supporters, she w… to 51 B.C. Cleopatra III sent her grandsons to Kos in 103 BC. He named his daughter Cleopatra VII as his co-regent in 52 BC. Daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce. There he was accused de repetundis, but defended by Cicero and probably acquitted. 2004. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFSchiff2011 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFLefkowtiz1997 (, "Pharaonic temples in Upper Egypt from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods - UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Eusebius: Chronicle p. 167, accessed online", Strabo, Geography, Book XVII, pp. Soon before his death he chose his daughter Cleopatra VII as his coregent. [33] Ptolemy XII took no action in response to his brother's death and Cyprus remained a Roman province until returned to Ptolemaic control by Julius Caesar in 48 BC. So both of the women were killed and Auletes restored his reign. [9], Ptolemy IX made an attempt to reclaim the Ptolemaic throne in 103 BC, by invading Judaea. When Ptolemy XI died without a male heir, the only available male descendents of the Ptolemy I lineage were the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX by an unknown Alexandrian Greek concubine (Clayton, 1994). Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (Greek: Πτολεμαίος Νέος Διόνυσος Θέος Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother) (117 BC – 51 BC) was son of Ptolemy IX Soter II. He was more commonly known as. [63], The philosopher Porphyry (c. 234 – c. 305 AD) wrote of Ptolemy XII's daughter Cleopatra VI Tryphaena, who reigned alongside her sister Berenice. This gave the Romans even more leverage over his regime and meant that the fate of Egypt became an increasingly immediate issue in Roman politics. The Roman Senate recognised Ptolemy as king and Caesar passed a law that added Ptolemy to the list of friends and allies of the people of Rome (amici et socii populi Romani) in 59 BC. BC He left the crown and kingdom of Egypt to his eldest surviving daughter, Cleopatra, and his elder son, Ptolemy XII, a lad of nine or ten years. [14], When Ptolemy X had died in 88 BC, his will had left Egypt to Rome in the event that he had no surviving heirs. He drowned, aged 15, while trying to escape the victorious Roman di… A strike by farmers of royal land in Herakleopolis which is attested in a papyrus document from 61/60 BC has been interpreted as a sign of widespread discontent with this taxation. His favorite daughter, Cleopatra VII succeeded him on the throne. Her father Ptolemy XII Aul… The reason for this sudden shift is unknown, but presumably she was divorced at this time. Ptolemy XII was an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX by an uncertain mother. [1][2] Some scholars have therefore proposed that his mother was a concubine – probably an Alexandrian Greek,[3][4][5][6] but possibly a member of the Egyptian elite. After their father died in 81 BC, Ptolemy XII's half-sister Berenice III took the throne. Her father, known as Ptolemy XII or Auletes, was the king of Egypt. Generally, descriptions of Ptolemy XII portray him as weak and self-indulgent, drunk, or a lover of music. His daughter Berenice IV became his successor. Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, (Greek: “Ptolemy the Father-Loving God”) (born 62/61—died 47 bc, near Alexandria), Macedonian king of Egypt and coruler with his famous sister, Cleopatra VII. King Auletes was born sometime during 100 B.C. Ptolemy XIV of Egypt is similar to these royalties: Cleopatra, Ptolemy XII Auletes, Ptolemy XI Alexander II and more. His reign was officially dated as having begun on the death of his father in 81 BC, thereby eliding the reigns of Berenice III and Ptolemy X. https://ancientegypt.fandom.com/wiki/Ptolemy_XII?oldid=9457. [22], In 76 BC, the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis died and Ptolemy XII travelled to Memphis to appoint his fourteen-year-old son, Pasherienptah III, as the new High Priest. He was king of Egypt from 80 BC to 58 BC and from 55 BC until his death in 51 BC. Topic. In 80 BC, Ptolemy XII succeeded Ptolemy XI to the throne of Egypt. This inbreeding was intended to stabilize the family; wealth a… This unique characteristic was maintained through intermarriage; most often these marriages were either between brother and sister or even uncle and niece. With Roman funding and military assistance, Ptolemy XII was able to recapture Egypt and have Berenice IV killed in 55 BC. [1][2] But he is also possibly the Son of Ptolemy XI and Cleopatra IV. She may have been the daughter of Cleopatra V Tryphaina, although Strabo 17.1.11 says only one of the daughters of Ptolemy was legitimate, and that not Cleopatra.Cleopatra married her younger brother Ptolemy XIII and after his death, married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV. [22] Ptolemy adopted a new royal epithet Neos Dionysos (New Dionysus) at some time after this; Chris Bennett proposes that the epithet was linked to the break with Cleopatra. Ancient Egypt Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. To achieve this goal he was prepared to sacrifice much: the loss of rich Ptolemaic lands, most of his wealth and even, according to Cicero, the very dignity on which the mystique of kingship rested when he appeared before the Roman people as a mere supplicant. Ptolemy XII, 61–47 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (51–47 B.C. [27][24][28], The money required for these bribes was enormous. [36][34], Taking his daughter Cleopatra with him, Ptolemy fled for the safety of Rome. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. ), of the Macedonian dynasty; son of Ptolemy XI. His reign began as co-ruler with his sister, the famous Cleopatra VII, following the wishes of their father, Ptolemy XII Auletes. Ptolemy reigned during the period of Hellenism. Auletes was only to keep the throne two years after regaining it as he died in the spring of 51 B.C. By his wife Cleopatra V, Ptolemy XII had at least one child, Berenice IV, and probably Cleopatra VII; he had his three youngest children, Arsinoe IV, Ptolemy XIII, and Ptolemy XIV, with an unknown mother. Ptolemy Auletes died in 51. Her mother remains controversial, but Cleopatra was known to have referred to Ptolemy Alexander as her grandfather, and therefore Ptolemy XII’s wife, Cleopatra V Tryphaena is the likeliest candidate. Ptolemy IX meanwhile had been remarried to Cleopatra Selene, with whom he had a daughter, Berenice III. [14][18] Ironically, their father had reclaimed the Egyptian throne around the same time. However in 58 BC after he failed to comment on the Roman conquest of Cyprus, a territory ruled by his brother, he was forced to flee to Rome. His old ally Pompey housed the exiled king and his daughter and argued on behalf of Ptolemy's restoration in the Senate. At some point during this period, probably in 81 or 80 BC, they were engaged to two of Mithridates' daughters, Mithridatis and Nyssa. Both of her brothers ruled Egypt with Cleopatra before their early deathsPtolemy XIII (died 44 B.C.E. ) The Alexandrians then summoned Ptolemy XII to return to Egypt and assume the kingship; his brother became king of Cyprus, where he would reign until 58 BC. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, he was a descendant of its founder, Ptolemy I. Ptolemy XII was an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX by an uncertain mother. He was more commonly known as. [55] Cleopatra V disappears from court records a few months after the birth of Ptolemy's second known child,[56] and probably hers, Cleopatra VII in 69 BC. He ruled Egypt from 80 B.C. Dio Cassius reports that a group of 100 men were sent as envoys from Egypt to make their case to the Romans against Ptolemy XII, but Ptolemy had most of these killed before they reached Rome. [15] Chris Bennett argues that these sons should be identified as Ptolemy XII and Ptolemy of Cyprus. [13][14] Relations between Ptolemy IX and his mother deteriorated. The latter had been lynched by an angry crowd, after he had killed his popular coregent Berenice III of Egypt|Berenice III, who was incidentally also a daughter of Ptolemy IX Soter II. Her mother is subject to dispute. Cleopatra was born in Alexandria in 69 BC to Ptolemy XII Auletes, who ruled Egypt from 80 to 58 BC and then again from 55 to 51 BC. His will stated that Cleopatra, who was 18 at the time, would marry her brother Ptolemy XIII. With the siege now stalemated the Ptolemaic forces requested that Julius Caesar release Ptolemy XIII Auletes, who had been in Caesar’s custody the entire time. Ptolemy XII Theos Philopater Philadelphus Neos Dionysos Auletes, King of Egypt, approximately 112 B.C.-51 B.C. Their sibling rivalry of these co-rulers soon involved Rome. Historians report that Cleopatra had three sisters and two younger brothers. This title was probably meant to reinforce Ptolemy XII's claim to the throne in the face of claims that his parentage meant that he was an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX and therefore not entitled to rule. Gabinius defeated the Egyptian frontier forces, marched to Alexandria, and attacked the palace, where the palace guards surrendered without fighting. At the height of his success in 59 BC, after paying substantial bribes to Julius Caesar and Pompey, a formal alliance was formed (foedera) and his name was inscribed into the list of friends and allies of the people of Rome (amici et socii populi Romani). The Roman historian Cassius Dio wrote that a group of one hundred men were sent as envoys from Egypt to make their case to the Romans against Ptolemy XII's restoration. She was soon murdered by her cousin and co-regent, Ptolemy XI, who was then killed. ), of the Macedonian dynasty, illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX Pt Rabirius immediately left Egypt and went back to Rome at the end of 54 BC. [45], At the moment of Ptolemy XII's restoration, Roman creditors demanded the repayment of their loans, but the Alexandrian treasury could not repay the king's debt. [50] According to the author Mary Siani-Davies: Throughout his long-lasting reign the principal aim of Ptolemy was to secure his hold on the Egyptian throne so as to eventually pass it to his heirs. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. In turn, Pasherienptah III crowned Ptolemy as Pharaoh and then went to Alexandria, where he was appointed as Ptolemy XII's 'prophet'. Daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce. Ptolemy XII died sometime before 22 March 51 BC. Rome annexed Cyprus in 58 BC, causing Ptolemy of Cyprus to commit suicide. They were captured by Mithridates VI of Pontus probably in 88 BC, around the time Ptolemy IX returned to the Egyptian throne. ), also known as King Ptolemy Auletes, was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Philopator Philadelphos (Koinē Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaĩos, "Ptolemy New Dionysus, Father-lover, Sibling-lover"; c. 117 BC – before 22 March 51 BC) was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. The identity of his mother is uncertain. However, Rome did not wish to invade Egypt to restore the king, since the Sibylline books stated that if an Egyptian king asked for help and Rome proceeded with military intervention, great dangers and difficulties would occur. However, Cicero and other ancient sources refer to Ptolemy XII as an illegitimate son; Pompeius Trogus called him a "nothos" (bastard), while Pausanias wrote that Ptolemy IX had no legitimate sons at all. [22] Her parentage is uncertain – modern scholarship often interprets her as a sister,[22] but Christopher Bennett argues that she was a daughter of Ptolemy X. In April 80 BC, Ptolemy XI Alexander II, the son of Ptolemy X, was installed as her co-regent, promptly murdered her, and was himself killed by an angry Alexandrian mob. He was commonly known as Auletes (Αὐλητής, "the Flautist"), referring to the king's love of playing the flute in Dionysian festivals. His mother is unknown. [12] By 109 BC, Ptolemy IX had begun the process of introducing Ptolemy XII to public life. [7][20][21], On his arrival in Alexandria, in April 80 BC, Ptolemy XII was proclaimed king. Following the death of her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra ascended to the throne in 51 BCE with one of her younger brothers as co-regent. On the death of his father he was under the guardianship of Pompey. [64] The Greek historian Strabo (c. 63 BC – c. AD 24) stated that the king had only three daughters of whom the eldest has been referred to as Berenice IV. In light of this crisis, however, Ptolemy XII began to expend significant resources on bribing Roman politicians to support his interests. Ptolemy also provided pay and maintenance for 8,000 cavalry to Pompey for his war with Judaea. He was killed while leading the Ptolemaic army against Julius Caesar … [43] The exact date of Ptolemy XII's restoration is unknown; the earliest possible date of restoration was 4 January 55 BC and the latest possible date was 24 June the same year. 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